Learning to learn; a 4-year-old’s experience

We can often underestimate the complexity of ideas young children can understand. I was teaching in Brunei Darussalam at a public secondary school and my daughters attended the International School of Brunei (ISB) which had the IB’s Primary Years Program (PYP). My younger daughter, four-years-old at the time, was in kindergarten. Time came for a student-led-conference and I attended like the dutiful father I was hoping to be. Knowing nothing of the IB or the PYP, or any other of the associated acronyms, I wasn’t sure what exactly to expect.  

The teacher explained that the PYP curriculum is organized around a series of six units of inquiry during the year, where children develop skills, knowledge, understandings and attitudes through a process of structured inquiry. ‘That sounds good, but what does it look like?’ – My private thought at the time.  I was soon to find out.

My daughter, whom I had expected to just point out a few drawings, led me to the back of the room to what she introduced as the Wondering Wall. At the top of the Wondering Wall, which was a series of large pieces of paper stuck to the wall, a statement about identity was written in large letters, ‘Different types of families make up our community.’ She read this out, although of course, she could not yet read, and pointed to her name which was written with all the other children’s names along the left hand side of the wall. She then told me with a slight roll of her eyes what she had thought a family was at the beginning of the unit. It was written in the teacher’s neat script next to my daughter’s name. All along the line that moved across the wall from her name, in that neat script, were similar thoughts about questions that she had had at different stages of the unit.

My daughter explained to me, using this visual, what she thought at the start of the unit, some of the questions that she had wondered about, the classroom activities that they had done along the way and the things that she had learned from them. At the end of the line, the far right of the Wondering Wall, was her final thoughts on what constituted a family, again scribed by the teacher, but in my daughter’s words. A very different statement to her initial one, showing in her four-year-old language that she understood that there were many different potential structures.

I left the student-led-conference wondering about the significance of my four-year-old daughter coming to realize that the world may not be exactly as she imagines it – that we learn new things to change our perspective. Many adults struggle with this. It wasn’t so much what she had learnt, nor was it how she had learnt, the wondrous part of the experience was seeing that she was completely conscious of the learning process, that she could even explain how her understanding had changed and why. She was a better learner at the end of that unit – a more independent learner and a more critical thinker. This is a way to interact with the world. In short, she had become a slightly different person. The learning process influences the person we become, a cumulative process of tiny, yet incredibly important incremental steps. Who do you want your child to be? This is the central question.

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Searching for similarities across cultures with deeper questioning

If you are interested in the role of questions in the classroom and beyond, the presentation below (about a 20 minute read) may be of interest. This was from the Annual General Meeting of the Japan/America Society of Hiroshima. Keep asking good questions.

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Thank you to Yumi Kyogoku for the Japanese translation and to Fuyuko Takita for the reading.

 

Title: “Searching for Difference: Considering the value of cultural understanding”

I am greatly honored to be here this evening to speak to you all on this 4th day of July. A special day for the United States where the country’s independence is celebrated, focusing on the end of British rule in 1776. Interestingly, just 12 years later, the British placed their flag in the soil of my home country, Australia, beginning yet another colonial journey. This time however, fortunately for the British at least, it was a less perilous experience. The links between these two events in very different parts of the world form a good context for this evening’s presentation, for when we consider the independence of a whole nation, we are forced to reflect on our own individual identities, our own cultures, because culture is about belonging. The question of who we are independent from, leads naturally to the question of who we are dependent on. To work successfully and to live peacefully, we need to deeply understand the people we depend on. This understanding has everything to do with culture.

今晩、私はこの7月4日という、アメリカ合衆国が1776年にイギリスから独立した日を祝う、とても特別な独立記念日に、皆さんにお話すことができ、大変光栄です。興味深いことに、そのちょうど12年後、イギリスは私の母国であるオーストラリアの土地に旗を掲げ、さらにもう一つの植民地支配を開始しました。しかし、今度はイギリス人にとっては幸運にも、危機感の少ない経験でした。この2つの世界の非常に異なる地域で起こったと出来事というのは、今夜のプレゼンテーションの内容にも少し関係があります。というのは、国全体の独立性を考えるとき、私たちは自分の個人的なアイデンティティ、つまりどこに自分が所属するのかということですが、私たちが誰から独立しているのかという疑問は、私たちが誰に依存しているのかという問題に自然につながります。成功を収め、平和に生きるためには、私たちが依存する人々を深く理解する必要があります。実はこの理解が、非常に文化と深い関係があります。

I would like to open with two questions; ‘What has culture got to do with education?’ and ‘Why should we care?’

まずは皆さんに質問をすることから始めさせて頂きたいと思います。「文化は教育とどんな関係がありますか?」「なぜ私たちはそんなことを考えないといけないのでしょうか?」

In this evening’s presentation, I will be exploring some ideas related to the way we come to understand culture and implications of this for education within Japan.

I am the principal at Hiroshima International School and I have been fortunate enough to work with many great educators in a number of wonderful schools within very different cultural contexts. One thing that I have come to realize over these years is that despite our obvious cultural differences, we are more similar than we realize. In order to understand this, students need to learn to search for deep meaning, for aspects of their own identity that may not be readily apparent; aspects that may not be obvious; qualities beyond their awareness. Students need to search beyond the facts of themselves, their surface level appearances. They need to search deeply for who they are as individuals and what they share with their fellow human beings. A need for such a search has far reaching implications for how we approach teaching and learning in our schools and is a step toward a more peaceful and sustainable planet.

今晩、このプレゼンテーションを通して、文化の理解方法と日本の教育との関わりについて、皆さんといっしょに探求できればと思っております。私は現在、広島インターナショナルスクールの校長をしております。幸運なことにそれ以前も、様々な文化圏の学校で、素晴しい教育者達と共に働く機会に恵まれてまいりました。そして、近年私が気がついたことは、全く異なる文化の中にさえ、思っている以上に類似点もたくさんあるということです。このような事を深く理解する為に、生徒は単なる事実や、表面上や外見上のことがらだけではなく、自分のアイデンティティーについて深く掘り下げ、知る必要があります。個人としての自分はいったいだれなのか、そして、他の人々と共有している物は何なのかについて深く考え、探求することが大切です。この探求の必要性こそが、私どもの学校の教育と学習に対するアプローチの仕方と深く関わっており、より平和で持続可能な惑星を作る為の第一歩となっています。

I am fond of metaphor, perhaps overly so. As a secondary English teacher by profession, this is actually one of our chief occupational hazards, however if you will bear with me, it is often useful to use a familiar idea to help us understand another, or to provoke a new way of looking at an idea that has become too familiar. I would argue that our education systems have become far too familiar to us and we are in dire need of a new perspective.

私は比喩表現がとても好きです。もしかすると中・高等部の英語教師としての一種の職業病なのかもしれません。しかしながら、何かを理解しようとする時、特に当たり前になりすぎていることを別の視点から見直す時などに、物事を他の何かに例えることはとても有効です。

The metaphor this evening, is the iceberg, a favorite of anyone with an interest in culture. In 1976, in a book called Beyond Culture, Edward Hall proposed that culture could be understood as an iceberg, where only a small percentage of what made up the iceberg was actually visible above the surface of the water. For culture, below the surface would mean out of conscious awareness. For forty years, this metaphor has been used to help people better understand the unconscious values that drive the more visible expressions of culture.

今晩使用したい例えは、文化に興味のある人のお気に入り「氷山」です。1976年、エドワード ホールは、著書「文化を超えて」の中で文化は氷山にたとえると理解しやすいと言っています。水面上に見えている氷山は、その下に広がる大きな氷山のほんの一角にすぎません。文化にしても、表面上の事柄以外はわかりにくい物です。この比喩は目に見えない、気づきにくい文化の理解に目を向けることを促すための例えとして、この40年間広く使われてきました。

On the surface (above the water line) we have examples of cultural expression such as language, literature, festivals, food, religion, dress, art and music to name just a few. These ones are readily visible. We see them, hear them, taste them straight away. To take dress for example, the men here are mostly wearing suits tonight. If we were in Hawaii, you would be in Aloha shirts. A suit would be the mark of an outsider. Next time, come here in an Aloha shirt and try it out. It would feel different, strange.

表面上の文化とは言語や文学、お祭り、食べもの、宗教、衣服、美術や音楽などです。見たり、聞いたり、味わったりできるこれらの事には容易に気づく事ができます。今晩ここにいるほとんどの男性の皆さまはスーツを着用されています。ですがもしここがハワイであるなら、皆さまはアロハシャツをお召しになっている事と思われます。ハワイでスーツを着ていると浮いてしまいます。もしそれがどう言う事なのか試してみたいと思われるなら、ぜひ次回はここにアロハシャツで来てみてください。居心地の悪さを体験して頂く事ができると思います。

We can’t miss these cultural differences as I found out when I was 15 years old. My family had just moved from Australia to Papua New Guinea and I had my first chance to be a bit shocked by how different life can be in another culture. I spent a month on one of the remote northeastern islands staying with a friend in his grandmother’s village. It was very isolated, at least for me, with no phones, running water or electricity. There were no hospitals or shops or roads that weren’t dirt – just bamboo houses and lots of smiling faces. On one of my first nights there, the sun had gone down and I was getting hungry and was wondering about dinner. I soon found out.

私は15歳の時にこのような異文化体験をしました。家族と一緒にオーストラリアからパプアニューギニアに引っ越しをしたのです。全く異なる生活様式の文化がある事を知り、ショックを受けました。友人の祖母が住む離島の村で一ヶ月を過ごした事があります。電話も水道も電気もない僻地でした。病院も、店も、道路もないけれど、たくさんのバンブーハウスと笑顔がありました。そこでの初めての夜、日が沈んで「お腹がすいたな」と思ったらまもなく、夕食がでてきました。

Some of the children from the village made small fires on the beach and waited patiently by the water with slingshots, firing at large bats when they emerged from the forest to fly overhead. The downed bats were thrown straight on the coals to smoulder and later we sat around eating the oily meat from the bats with our fingers. This wasn’t the type of meal that I was used to growing up in Australia. The bat meat was also pungent, a very strong smell like nothing I had ever experienced and it stayed on the hands for days, no matter how many times you washed them. That meal was a bit of a shock, but I was ready for this surface level difference. It was part of the adventure I had been expecting. In many ways the experience was much the same as my first taste of natto in Japan some 6 years later. The bat meat did, in fact, taste marginally better than my first bite in Japan of ‘ika no shiro kara’, which I had mistakenly thought was sweet pinkish jelly, so I guess all things are relative. Food is easy to notice, the good and the bad.

村の子ども達はビーチで火を炊き、スリングショットを手に森から大コウモリがでてくるのを辛抱強く待ち、頭上に飛んで来たら打ち取ります。落ちて来たコウモリはそのまま炭火焼きにされ、私たちは輪になって座り、その脂ぎった肉を手づかみで食べました。それは私の育ったオーストラリアの食事の仕方とは違っていました。コウモリは私がそれまでに嗅いだことのない辛辣な匂いを放ち、そして、その匂いは何度手を洗おうと数日間とることができませんでした。しかし、それはショッキングな食事には違いありませんでしたが、そのような表面上の違いはたいした問題ではありませんでした。そのぐらいの事は起こるかもしれないと予測し得た範囲内の出来事でした。その約6年後に初めて日本で納豆を食べた時も同じように感じましたし、コウモリの味は、甘いピンクのゼリーだと思って間違えて食べたイカの塩からよりはまだましでした。全て似たり寄ったりの体験で、食べものは美味しいかまずいか、とてもわかりやすいです。

Below the surface of the iceberg of culture however, there are aspects of culture that we do not think about and for this reason, can catch us unaware. Some of these deeper aspects of culture include concepts of time, personal space, notions about logic and validity, concepts of justice, courtesy, notions of modesty and affection, attitudes to elders to name just a few. Although at 15 I hadn’t given the idea of culture much thought, at the time I sensed deeper differences than just food, ones I couldn’t see, but that I could feel, ones that were hard to explain. I don’t think I would even have had the language to explain this sense of difference at that age. I had definitely not learnt the language needed, or the ways of thinking needed to express these ideas at school. I had to learn that later, as an adult, and this is what I want to express tonight. Our schools should teach a deep understanding of culture, before young men and women are sent out into the world.

しかしながら、時間の概念であったり、パーソナルスペース、論理性、有効性や正当性に関する考え方、礼儀、謙虚さや愛情表現、年配者への態度など、氷山の下にある側面については、考えに及ばないようなこともあり、気がつきにくいです。15歳の私は文化についての知識はあまりありませんでしたが、それでも食べ物や目に見えるもの以外の、どう説明したらいいのかわからないような感覚を感じとっていました。その当時の私は、その違いをどう表現したらよいかわかりませんでした。学校では、そのような感覚をまとめる考え方も表現する言語も教わっていませんでした。私が今晩皆さんにお伝えしたい感覚を表現できるのは、大人になってから習得した術を使うからです。学校は若人達を実社会に送り出す前に、文化を深く理解する術を身につけさせるべきです。

These deeper aspects of culture are fascinating, but complex. For example, on the night of the bat feast in Papua New Guinea, I had a second surprise that I was definitely not expecting and it related to notions of personal space. I shared a room with my friend in his family’s bamboo house. It was on stilts above the water and you could see the small waves rolling up and down the beach through the floor of split bamboo. There were no doors or windows, just open spaces. You didn’t lock these houses. It was a very peaceful place and I was extremely tired after a day full of the unexpected, so I drifted off to what I thought would be the very welcome and familiar routine of sleep. Just a few hours later, however, I awoke to find someone climbing into my bed. This, as you can imagine, was quite a surprise.

深い文化背景は魅力的ですが、とても複雑です。パプアニューギニアでコウモリを食べた夜、それまで考えた事もなかったような出来事がおこりました。個人的空間・パーソナルスペースに関する事です。私はその日、友だちの部屋に泊まりました。彼のバンブーハウスは水上に建てられており、床下には波が揺らめき、ドアも窓もないオープンスペースでした。そんな平和な楽園で未知の体験をし、疲れ果てていた私はあっという間に眠りにつきました。しかしながら、その2、3時間後、誰かが「私のベット」に潜り込んで来たのです。本当に驚きました。

You may note that I say ‘my’ when I described the bed and this is the origin of my surprise. This was an assumption that I had brought along with me from my world. It had no place here.  Growing up accustomed to an exclusive sleeping space, ‘just me’, I am sure that you can imagine my surprise at my late night visitor. In this new culture, however, it was the most natural thing in the world. There were areas in each house where people slept and although the division between male and female was familiar to me, the idea that groups of people shared sleeping spaces was not. It was my friend’s cousin who slept by my side that night and it was perfectly natural for him to join us. Over the course of the month I was there, sometimes he would sleep in my friend’s bed, sometimes mine. Sometimes others would come and frequency seemed to be determined by the closeness of personal ties. My understanding of personal space had just expanded and it was a much more subtle, unpredictable and difficult to define aspect of culture than the daily dining arrangements.

皆さんは私が先ほど「私のベッド」と言った事にお気づきになられましたか?それが私の驚きの根源でした。私が当たり前だと思っていた「ねる場所は自分の場所」だという考えは、私の世界の中だけの概念だったのです。そんな場所はそこには存在しませんでした。私がどんなに驚いたか想像して頂けますか?男女別々に寝る事は理解できましたが、雑魚寝をするという概念は私にはなかったのです。私の横に来て眠ったのは友だちのいとこで、それは彼らに取って、ごく普通の事でした。私がそこにいた一ヶ月の間、彼は私のベットでも寝ましたし、友だちのベットで眠った事もありました。他の人が来た時もありましたし、一概にして、皆お互いの距離間が近く、私の中の個人的空間の概念が大きくくずされた体験でした。しかし、そのような価値観を定義したり、受け入れたりする事は、夕食の仕方の違いを理解する事より微妙で、予測不能で、そして難しくもありました。

Just as I was getting used to sleeping in a communal space, I was also surprised by hand-holding, which again, was quite alien to me as in my mind it was usually associated with either young children and adults or with romantic couples. In my new world, my friend’s cousin would often hold my hand as we were walking along. I had noticed men holding hands and women holding hands, but never men and women. Walking along holding hands with a boy my age took some getting used to, but it was a familiar gesture and a sign of friendship and acceptance, which I appreciated after the initial discomfort.

雑魚寝する事に慣れはじめたころ、今度は手をつなぐ習慣に驚かされました。手をつなぐのは大人と子ども、あるいは恋人同士だけだと思っていたのです。ですが、友だちのいとこは、道を歩くときに私の手を握りました。私にとっての新しい世界では、男の人同士、または、女の人同士で手をつなぐのは当たり前のようでしたが、男の人と女の人が手をつなぐ事はありませんでした。同性同士で手をつなぐのは友情の証で、その居心地の悪い習慣に慣れてからは、その友情の証にとても感謝しました。

I had further lessons in other understandings of personal space, some 6 years later when I arrived in Japan at the age of 21. I was horrified at the rush hour trains in Tokyo. I saw the impossible made possible. A white-gloved hand on my back, pushing me into a train that was already impossibly full. My body was supported by the crush of other bodies. My arms, pinned to my side, trapped. But still, there seemed to be room for more commuters. People ran for the door, turned and walked in wiggling their backs until space somehow miraculously opened. Then another person would come until the whistles started blowing, doors started closing, and opening, and closing. Finally we would leave an empty platform, squashed, silent, still, each person hoping their neighbor didn’t sneeze. In US education, there was a famous ‘No Child Left Behind’ policy. In Japan, I think JR must have had a ‘No Commuter Left Behind’ policy and it worked amazingly well, as long as you were willing to sacrifice, for a short while, all boundaries protecting your personal space. Some years later, after getting used to the Japanese understanding of personal space in a train, I was nearly the victim of violence when I tried to board a subway on a visit to London using my understandings of how it worked in Tokyo. I tried to nudge my way backwards into a carriage that, in my humble opinion, still had plenty of room. The large man and even larger woman who I was encouraging to move further into the train turned and gave me such an angry look that I stepped back away from the doors slowly, careful not to make eye contact, and was quite relieved when the doors closed. I certainly hope that those two never travel to Japan. 

個人的空間に関しては、その約6年後、21歳で東京に来た時に強烈な体験をしました。東京のラッシュアワーに恐れ戦いたのです。不可能を可能にする瞬間に立ち会いました。あり得ないほど既に満員だった電車の中に、白い手袋をした人が私を押し込んだのです。私の体は他の人の上に倒れ掛かり、手は横の方に挟まったままでした。それでもまだスペースがあると思う人がいるようで、電車に走り込み、ドアの所で後ろ向きになり、魔法使いのようにスペースを作り出し乗り込んでくるのです。出発の笛が吹かれ、ドアが閉まりかけてもそれは続き、閉まったり、開いたり、閉まったり、開いたりが繰り返えされました。ぎゅうぎゅう詰めの中、それでも皆静かに、誰かがくしゃみをしない事を祈りつつ、やっと電車は空っぽのプラットホームを後にしました。アメリカには‘No Child Left Behind『「落ちこぼれの生徒を残さない』いう有名な教育ポリシーがあります。JRにはきっと‘No Commuter Left Behind’『通勤者をホームに残さない』というポリシーがあるに違いありません。そしてその制作は、皆がほんの短時間、個人的空間を生け贄に捧げる事で、驚くほどの成功を収めています。そしてその数年後、すっかり日本式個人的空間の文化に慣れてしまった頃、私はロンドンの地下鉄で東京式の電車の乗り方をしようとした為、危うく事件に巻き込まれる所でした。愚かな私は、まだまだ十分余裕があると思い、後ろ向きに地下鉄に乗り込もうとしたのです。私が暗に奥に移動してくれと促した大きな男性と、もっと大きな女性は私を睨みつけました。私はその人たちと目を合わさないように気を付けながら、そっと電車を降り、ドアが閉まった時にはほっとしました。あの方達が日本旅行をされない事を心から願っています。

These below-the-surface aspects of culture, such as notions of personal space are not as easy to explain as the food we eat, or the clothes we wear. More than 20 years after my first rush-hour Tokyo train ride, I moved from Tokyo to Hawaii and I had some problems adjusting. People hug in Hawaii, often and vigorously. I was a school principal and while in Japan had not been used to hugging anyone at school, let alone parents. It was very difficult for me to manage this in Hawaii, particularly in those awkward moments when you think you should, but are not quite sure. How can you judge something like that? And what does the hug actually mean? It is not so much what people are doing, such as hugging by way of greeting, that is important, it is the meaning behind the actions that can start you on a road of questioning that will lead to a deeper understanding of culture, including your own.

このように、個人的空間に関する概念等目に見えない文化の側面は、食べものや着るものと違い表現する事が簡単ではありません。東京で初めてラッシュアワーを体験した20年後、私はハワイに引っ越し、なかなか順応する事ができませんでした。ハワイの人はすぐに、割と激しく、ハグをするのです。私が校長をしていた日本の学校ではハグをする事はありませんでした。ですが、ハワイでは、ハグをした方がいいのか、悪いのか判断に迷う事が多くとても大変でした。そんなことはどうやって判断すれば良いのでしょうか?そもそもハグにはどんな意味があるでしょうか?挨拶としてハグをするとか、やっている事が問題なのではなく、その行動の背後にある意味に疑問を持つ事が、自分自身のことも含めた文化という物を深く理解していく事に繋がっていくのです。

Cultural difference such as notions of personal space expressed through fluid and communal sleeping spaces, and gestures of affection such as hand holding exist in the deeper parts of the cultural iceberg and are more difficult to explain than the concrete foods, flags and festivals found above the surface. Oftentimes, above the surface fact finding is the limit of a student’s school experience with cultural explorations because below the surface aspects of culture are not so easy to condense into a set of simple facts. Deeper understanding is required. You would never find an explanation of personal space in a school text book, because it is difficult to explain. Not because it is unimportant, but simply because it is difficult.

雑魚寝の話や、同性同士で手をつなぐ話等を通じてお伝えした個人的空間や好意の表し方に関する文化の違いは、文化氷山の見えない下の方に属しており、食べ物や、旗や、お祭り等、具体的な文化氷山の見える所に属しているものに比べて、説明するのが簡単ではありません。学校では表面上の側面を学習するだけで、生徒は探求せずに終わるという事が度々見受けられるようです。目に見えない、奥深い文化的側面をシンプルな事柄として拾い集めるのが難しいからです。より深い理解が求められますが教科書には個人的空間の概念がのっていません。なぜなら説明するのが簡単ではないからです。重要でないからではなく、ただ単に難しいからです。

However, if we want to move toward a more peaceful world, one essential prerequisite is that we understand each other, not just what we see on the surface, but what really makes us, us. We also need to be prepared to follow the lines of inquiry that the deeper questions lead us into. A school’s curriculum has a heavy impact on the extent that students are afforded the opportunity to explore these deeper areas of culture.

しかし、もしより平和な世界を作りたいと思うのであれば、表面上だけではなく、本当の私たちはだれなのか、お互いに良く理解し合う事が必須条件です。

But why is this important to you?

You may not work in education, but you all live in a society made up of the products of that education system; the children who are shaped by it and then move out into the world. They work for you. They are your children. Your grandchildren. They are the ones who will care for us all (hopefully) when we are too old to care for ourselves. I would say that we need to be very interested in the type of people our education systems shape.

なぜそんな事が重要なのでしょう?

皆さんは教育に関わるお仕事をしておられるわけではないかもしれません。しかし教育が作り上げた社会の中で暮らしておられます。学校で教育された子ども達が社会に出て行くのです。その生徒達があなたの元で働くのです。皆さんのお子さんであり、お孫さんです。願わくば、私たちが年老いた頃、面倒を見てくれるのです。そのため、私たちは教育システムが作り上げる物に興味を持つべきだと言わせて頂きます。

Recently, Japanese education leaders in the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) have certainly been bold enough to choose a challenging goal that has potential to heavily impact students’ experiences and understandings of deep culture in Japanese schools. I am speaking of the goal to introduce International Baccalaureate (IB) programs into hundreds of Article One schools over the coming years. It is certainly not an easy road, but I believe it will ultimately have a very significant impact on Japanese education in ways that we may not yet be able to imagine.

最近、文部科学省の教育委員会は、日本の学校において生徒の経験や深い文化の理解に大きな影響を与える可能性がある、とても大胆な目標を設定しました。「この数年の間に日本の数百校の一条校にIB・国際バカロレアプログラムを導入する」という目標についての話をしています。それは簡単な事ではないかもしれませんが、皆さまが考えておられる以上に大きな影響を日本の教育界に与えることだと思います。

The International Baccalaureate, referred to as the IB, is a curriculum model that is used in approximately 4500 schools around the world. Hiroshima International School is, proudly, one of those schools, with three IB programs, the Primary Years Program (PYP), Middle Years Program (MYP) and Diploma Program (DP) for our 3 year olds all the way through to our 18 year olds. The IB programs are inquiry based and this is the key to helping students understand deep culture.

IBと略される事の多い、国際バカロレアプログラムは、世界中の約4500校で取り入れられています。広島インターナショナルスクールは、IBの三つのプログラムであるプライマリープログラム(PYP)と、ミドルイヤープログラム (MYP) 、そしてディプロマプログラム (DP)を導入しており、3歳から18歳までの生徒が通っております。IBプログラムは探求する事を基本としており、その事が生徒に文化を深く理解させる一番の鍵となっています。

Inquiry requires students to ask good questions. Now this may seem obvious, but how seriously do we take questions in schools? Now, I don’t mean teacher questions or exam questions; I mean student questions. In your businesses and workplaces, do you know people who ask good questions; who know what to ask? They really stand out. You will notice these people. If they are able to ask good questions, where do you think they learnt the skill? It they were involved in a content based, textbook, exam focused curriculum, they probably did not learn it at school. In fact, good questions were most likely a problem for them at school.

探求するためには、生徒は良い質問をしなければなりません。ありきたりの事ですが、学校は質問をする・疑問を持つという事にどれほど真剣に取り組んでいるでしょうか?教師が質問することでも、テストの為の問題でもなく、生徒が自分自身にする質問です。お気づきの事と思いますが、ビジネスの世界でも、良い人材とは、良い質問をすることができる人、何を問えば良いのかわかっている人です。彼らが良い質問ができるのは、どこで学んだからでしょうか?もし彼らが詰め込み式の、テスト重視の教育の中で学んで来たとしたら、おそらくそれらのスキルは学校で学んだ物ではないはずです。実際良い質問は学校では問題になりがちです。

So what is a ‘good’ question? Let’s look at one type, referred to as a factual question. Before I came to Japan, I wondered what Japanese people wore. I didn’t know. How could I have known? The only exposure I had to Japanese culture was the ever-popular ninja and samurai movies on TV. I also had a vague idea that people wore suits all the time and that they ate fish without cooking it, so basically, I had no idea. Other questions were: What do they eat? Do they surf? Can anyone speak English? Do people bath together? I was worried about that. These questions collect very basic content and this type of questioning is a necessary step in the process of inquiry, but it is a start. It is not the end.

では「良い質問」とは何でしょうか?まずは、質問の一種である事実を問う質問について見てみましょう。日本に来る前、私は「日本の人はどんな服装をしているのだろう」と思っていました。知っている事と言えば、テレビで人気のニンジャと侍のことです。漠然と日本の人は一日中スーツを着て生魚だけを食べているんだろうかと思っていました。要するに何も知らなかったのです。何を食べるんだろう?サーフィンをするんだろうか?英語は通じるのか?そして他の人といっしょにお風呂に入るのか?というような事を心配していました。これらの事実を問うだけの基本的な疑問は探求のプロセスに於いて必要な事ではありますが、ただの始まりであり、最終点へ導いてくれるものではありません。

When I first came to Japan, I actually didn’t even know enough to ask good questions, which is a key point. The more you know, the better questions you can ask. In an IB program, building a solid knowledge base is important as it can help you ask good questions. In a traditional content based, textbook and exam driven curriculum, the initial knowledge base is the destination. It’s easy to find as you just need to open the text book. You remember, you take the exam, you forget, you move on.

実際の所、私が初めて日本に来た頃は、良い質問の仕方、何がキーポイントであるのかわかりませんでした。それがわかるに付けて良い質問ができるようになります。IBプログラムでは、基本的な知識を身に付けることは、良い質問をする為に必要であるので、重要な事だと考えられています。従来の教科書とテストが中心のコンテンツベースのカリキュラムでは、知識を身につける事が最終目標でした。教科書を広げ、暗記をし、テストを受け、そして忘れるという簡単な作業でした。

In an inquiry based approach, the initial content allows you to ask deeper, conceptual questions. Concepts are the big ideas. They are complex and they are general. When you are looking at the culture iceberg, these are the ideas that you find below the surface. Concepts are abstract ideas that have meaning across time, and place. For example, a question about ‘modern Japanese greetings in formal settings’ is factual, specific to both time and place. You could answer this by saying that in Japan, adults generally bow by way of greeting. The answer is relatively easy to provide and accurate to a degree. You could Google it.

探求ベースの学習方式では、コンテンツは概念的な疑問を深く掘り下げる時に役立ちます。概念とは、とても複雑で尚かつ大まかで一般的な大きなアイデアのことです。文化の氷山にたとえるなら、表面の下の見えない部分をさぐる為の物です。概念とは時空や場所を超えた抽象的なものです。たとえば「現代社会におけるかしこまった席での日本の挨拶とは?」という質問は、時間や場所が特定された事実に関する質問です。「現代の日本では大人はお辞儀をしながら挨拶をします。」と簡単に答える事ができます。グーグルで調べればすぐにわかる事です。

When exploring greetings, however, you could use the larger concept of ‘relationships’. A question to drive the inquiry, could be ‘How are greetings used to define relationships?’ Use the concept (the big idea of relationships) as the focus. The more specific idea of ‘modern Japanese greetings’ could be used as an example to explore this question, so that further examples from other cultures and students’ own personal experiences can be incorporated into the learning process. In this way, we can reflect on our own cultures and others, coming to a deeper understand of the origins and fluidity of our own identities.

しかしながら、挨拶についての調査をするとき、「関係性」と言う大きな概念を使う事ができます。探求に導く為には「関係性を定義する為に挨拶はどのように使われますか?」と質問します。注目する物として概念を使うのです。そうすると、「現代の日本の挨拶」のように具体的な事は質問に答える為の例として使う事ができます。尚かつ、他の文化や生徒の個人的な経験の例なども学習のプロセスに取り込むことができます。

A conceptual question does not provide an easy answer. In fact, by its very nature, the answer to a conceptual question will always be messy because of the complexity of the big ideas we need students to grapple with. Exploring the way that people in different cultures refuse a request is an interesting example? Factual questions will lead us to see difference and if left at this level will reinforce stereotypes. When I first arrived in Japan, I used to think that when Japanese people said that something was ‘difficult’ with a long intake of breath, it meant that it was just difficult. This led to all sorts of problems. In order to understand what was happening, I had to be able to ask deeper questions regarding relationships and the intent of the Japanese soft refusal. Students need to be taught to pursue these lines of inquiry to understand more complex aspects of culture that get closer to our real shared humanity. All cultures build and preserve relationships through ways of speaking, it just looks a bit different from place to place.

概念的な質問には容易に答えることができません。実際に生徒が取り組まなければならない大きな考え方は、複雑で、概念的質問に答える事は本当に厄介です。異なった文化圏の人々がリクエストを断る方法を探ることに興味がおありですか?事実を問うだけの質問は、違いを見つけやすいですが、そこで終えてしまえばステレオタイプを増長する事になりかねません。私は日本に来たばかりの頃、日本人が少し間を置いて「難しいですね」と言ったとき、それは「難しい」と言う意味なのだろうと思っていました。そして、そのために多くの問題が発生しました。問題を解決するために、私は日本のこの「やんわり断る事」の意図と関係性について深く質問をせざる終えませんでした。学生達はこの世界を共有している人々の違う文化のより複雑な側面を理解できるように、探求の仕方を学んでおくべきです。すべての文化は、話し方を通して関係性を構成し、保っていますが、場所によって違いがあります。

The third type of question used in an inquiry based curriculum is a debateable question. This one would require multiple perspectives, generate tension and tend to be deliberately provocative. For example, after students have compared how different types of greetings across cultures define relationships, they could address a debateable question like ‘Should public affection, like hugging, be allowed in schools if it offends people?’ This would allow an opportunity to really apply their knowledge to difficult, complex situations where complete agreement is not likely to be reached.

探求ベースのカリキュラムで使われる三種類目の質問は議論し得る質問です。この質問は様々な視点から検討する事を要し、緊張を生み、熱くさせます。たとえば、関係性を定義するための様々な文化の挨拶の仕方を比べた後で、「もし不快に感じる人がいるのであれば、ハグのような公衆の面前での愛情表現の仕方を学校でする事を許してもいいのだろうか?」と質問します。この質問は、完全に同意する事ができないような困難で複雑な状況の中で知識を駆使しながら模索しなければならないという機会を生徒に与えます。

In the business world, how often are you confronted by problems that can be solved by looking up the answer in a text book? In your family lives, how often is this the case? How often are solutions to problems in our lives simple? Moving forward into the middle of this 21st Century, what sort of questions does Japan need its future adults to be asking? In this sense, everyone here this evening has an interest in education.

ビジネスの世界において、教科書を読んだら解決できるような問題がどのくらいの頻度でありますか?あなたの家庭においてはどうでしょう?人生における問題のどのくらいがそんなにシンプルな問題でしょうか?21世紀の半ばに向かおうとしている将来の大人達対して、日本はどんな質問を投げかけるべきでしょうか?この点において、今日ここにいらっしゃる皆様は、教育に興味をお持ちだと思います。

By asking conceptual questions and debatable questions in school, learning becomes messy as it becomes a student driven exploration. The advantage is that at a deeper conceptual level, we are able to see similarity, as well as difference. We tend to discover the incredible connections that link us in our common humanity and difference becomes just a part of the magnificent cultural tapestry that has emerged across our beautiful, endangered planet.

概念的で議論し得る質問を学校で問う事によって、学習は生徒主導の探求になり、より面倒な物になります。概念レベルで物事を考える利点は、類似性と相違点を見ることができることです。共通する人間性の中に、私たちをつなぐリンクがあるという素晴しい関連性を発見し、相違点はこの美しくも絶滅の危惧にある惑星の異なった文化のタペストリーの一部にすぎないと気づくのです。

In this sense, the type of questions we learn to ask in school, will heavily influence the type of world we come to know as adults. A more peaceful and sustainable planet requires people who are able to ask good questions and are prepared to follow their inquiries into the depths of culture, to understand that across the globe we are all linked in our common humanity.

このように、私たちが学校で学習するためにする質問の質は、大人になって出て行く世界に大きな影響を及ぼします。より平和で、持続可能な惑星は、良い質問をする事ができ、奥深く文化を探求する事ができ、共通する人間性の中に互いを結びける共通点があると理解している人材を必要としています。

With strong, future-oriented leaders who value education at both the City and Prefectural levels here in Hiroshima, I am confident that we will all be able to promote an education where authentic inquiries into culture are valued so we can raise generations of students who will, throughout their lives, search for commonalities with people, both inside and outside of Japan, with whom they share the future of this lovely, fragile planet. Our future largely depends on the common ground people are able to find. In this sense, now, more than ever, our future depends on the types of questions we are willing to ask. My hope is that Hiroshima will emerge as a leader in this type of education, where we learn to look to what unites us rather than what divides us.

最後になりましたが、この広島という土地に住み、高い国際教育レベルを目指し、その未来を担う指導者たちとともに、私たちは、文化に対する本質の質問が評価される教育を推進することができると強く確信しています。 大切なのは、私たちがこの美しい地球の未来を共有し、国内外の人々との共通点を探していくことにあると思います。 よって私たちの未来とは、人々が同じ人類としての共通点をお互いに探し出すことに大きく依存しているのです。 こういった意味で、私たちの地球の未来というのは、私たちが求める質問の本質に依存しているともいえます。 私が願うのは、是非とも広島が、人類を分裂させるものではなく、私たちを結びつけるものを探すことを推進する教育を広げる、世界のリーダーとなっていただきたいと思っております。本日は、御静聴ありがとうございました。

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Patterns in conversations and what they can teach us

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Going further with your conversations. These two questions are posed to an Early Childhood 3&4 year-old class at Hiroshima International School.

Our brains seek patterns. It’s the way we make sense of our world and it is also the way we learn. Conversational patterns are an important part of our world, particularly as they govern the nature of our interactions.  As we learn language initially from our earliest interactions, the ongoing conversations between parents and young children have a strong impact on not only our language development, but of our view of the world and our place in it.

We know that children of parents who speak to them a lot develop larger vocabularies. This seems like common sense. However, as Bari Walsh from Harvard Graduate School of Education (https://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/uk/15/02/smart-talk) explains, it’s not just talk that’s important. It’s conversation. In this sense, it is the quality of those words that’s important. This is not just about using ‘big’ words, it is about the quality of the larger conversations. Walsh explains that beside a wide assortment of words, using complex words, interactive words, and words to tell stories, explain and imagine are all important.

In terms of patters, the use of questions is very important in the interactions. To take the example of using words to wonder, if a child is in conversations on a regular basis where they are asked their thoughts on what things might be like (e.g. When looking at the sky at night, ‘I wonder what it would be like to walk on the Moon?’) and are given time and space to explore these ideas, they will sense patterns across conversations and these patterns will explain things about their world. From these patterns, they will learn that;

  • they are valued as individuals, as their thoughts add meaning to conversations
  • imagination is important, for why else would time be spent on such conversations
  • perceptions differ, but these differing perceptions don’t need to be right or wrong
  • people need time to gather their thoughts and patient listeners wait
  • ideas can be explored at varying degrees of depth
  • we make meaning by building on each other’s ideas

In this sense, it is not just the words that are important, it’s the way we use them. From the type of conversations, they encounter and the patters they see, children learn their place in the world. Conversation, in this sense, can be a valuable gift to a child.

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Lessons learned on the bikes

On a recent cycling trip, I was reminded of an important lesson that we just need to keep learning, over and over again.

It was a 450km cycling trip over 6 days, camping along the way. I accompanied the group of 6 high school students and 3 teachers for the first three days, my first extended cycling journey. Three days on the road (with some time driving the support van) gave me time to ponder the idea that most outcomes are decided in our heads.

On a long day’s ride, you start in the morning and keep going until you arrive, all the thoughts about ‘can I make it’ not meaning terribly much when the distance just needs to be covered. You tell yourself to keep pedalling, and you do. Deciding your own outcome.

It was an apt metaphor for the two years of the IB Diploma Program in which the student cyclists are involved. A long, hard, challenging road, with trials along the way, the outcome worth it in the end, if you keep telling yourself that you can make it. And keep listening.

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Thinking multilingual

Life is an extended search for meaning, even when we don’t know we’re searching.

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When a building is not just a building. Words are like this.

Our basic unit of meaning is the word. Each word matches an image in our minds, and oftentimes, multiple images.  In this way, vocabulary and thought are inextricably linked. It would be hard to say, for example, how many images would be attached to the A-bomb Dome in Hiroshima for the average person, if such a person in fact exists.  What do people think of when they hear those words ‘A-bomb Dome’ spoken? How many subtle shades of meaning does the ruin of this building hold for those individuals who pass by?

Learning an additional language can help us to appreciate these subtle shades of meaning.

After growing up in a largely monolingual world, I found myself one day wandering in Japan.  For survival purposes I decided to learn a few of these strange new words. One of my early words was ‘omoshiroi’ which I had heard from time to time. A light, happy, content word that taught me a belated secret.

In the Japanese English dictionary, this word was listed as meaning both ‘fun’ and ‘interesting’. This really caught my attention at the time – ‘fun’ and ‘interesting’ to me meant different things, so  which one was it? How could one word mean both things at the same time? I was twenty-one years old and had just finished a university degree in English literature, so I knew much about the English language, yet as I was to discover, I knew nearly nothing about language.

Learning to see the world through multiple languages provides a unique opportunity for us to develop a sense of the wondrous variations in interpretation and perspective. The understanding that meaning is negotiable is inescapable.  Learning another language enables us to sense the depth of life – seeing two different socially constructed worlds at the same time. The analogy of bifocal vision works here. When we see the world with one eye it is 2D, but makes sense. Yet the use of another eye opens up a whole new 3D world that is similar, yet distinctly richer.

In this sense, for the individual who understands that meaning is negotiable, they would be asking not ‘What does the A-bomb Dome mean?’ rather, they would ask, ‘What could it mean?’  A powerful difference in perspective.

 

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A child’s world

As adults – teachers and parents – it’s nearly impossible to imagine the world of a child. The real question is, do we feel that it possesses enough worth to try and explore?

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My daughter, Abbie, wondering, but about what?

Do we take our children’s inquiries seriously, engaging them in conversations authentically, investigating their worlds, as they investigate ours?

I love what Reggio Emilia educators have to say – that we must actively seek out the worlds of children, not as limited versions of an adult world they will one day occupy, but as a legitimate ‘estate of childhood’ that is as rich and as meaningful as the world we are guiding them towards (Edwards, The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Experience in Transformation, 2011). This is a challenge for an adult, a parent or teacher, interacting with a child’s inherent questioning of the world, as we can be tempted to simply explain, to fill the gaps we perceive in their understanding, when we should be taking these valuable opportunities to explore their worlds. It is a subtle, yet very powerful difference in the framing of the conversation with a child.

It seems that we need to be able to ask good questions to support them and above all, we need to be prepared to take the time to consider all forms of their expression, to find out more about their constantly shifting, uniquely personal, and utterly complex childhood worlds.

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Curiosity and Language Learning

cyber bullying

An image by an anonymous Grade 5 student, depicting a complex message that words could not yet convey.

Attempting to explain relationships between concepts that language ability does not accommodate – yet.

This image depicts a very precise message on the surface – cyber bullying hurts. It also depicts the vulnerability of the child, sitting at his computer, in an otherwise safe place, most likely at school or home. The child is defenseless, arms by his side, unaware – the attack came fast and hard. The child is alone, the attack without witness, a large empty space surrounds him to further hint of this isolation.  The  impact from the blow, painful – the viewers attention drawn immediately to the clenched teeth and closed eyes of the victim; powerless, resigned, alone. The anonymity of the bully’s arm adds to this feeling of isolation and powerlessness. However, this anonymity works both ways, a faceless interaction, devoid of any confirmation of intent – leading to a whole new line of inquiry into the other side of the screen, out of the picture, the origin of the arm; an inquiry into communication during online interactions. Did the bully know? It’s a complex picture.

I was a mentor to a group of Grade 5 students working on the culminating task for the International Baccalaureate (IB) Primary Years Program (PYP) Exhibition. During the Exhibition inquiry process, in small, collaborative groups, students conduct an inquiry into a issue important to them and as you may be able to guess, this image came from a group inquiring into cyber bullying. During the mentoring process, I was amazed at the adventurous spirit in which the students were able to experiment with new language to describe cyber bullying. This was most obvious in the range of new vocabulary that they could draw from, but also in the more complex types of sentence structures that they were attempting to use to explain the complex issues they were uncovering. The students were attempting to explain relationships between concepts that their language ability could not accommodate – yet.

One of my students drew this picture for me on a thank-you card at the end of the Exhibition. Considering the inquiry that those students had pursued, it was a powerful image and the students, at different times and in different ways, had explained all of the connotations of the above picture. The students were intensely curious about this topic and it was this curiosity that drove the experimentation with new language. They were also passionate, but passion is not always coupled with curiosity (and this can be a dangerous mindset later in life). That it was curiosity that drove their need to use new language is a critical point when considering language learning in our schools. How seriously do we consider the role of curiosity when considering the development of language?

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